Prevent Sun Poisoning


Sun Poisoning, or photodermatitis, is the epidermis’ reaction to the UV rays put off by the sun. It is caused by over exposure to the sun however certain topical medications, vitamin deficiencies or other conditions may aggravate it further. Symptoms include red itchy rash, small blisters, pealing and occasionally nausea. The presence of the disorder can be identified through a photo test.

Avoiding exposure to the sun is the absolute best method to avoid sun poisoning. Also, avoiding the sun during peak hours is beneficial (noon to 3:00).

Stay covered up. If the sun does not hit your skin directly, you will be much better off. Wear long sleeves and pants if possible. You may also want to purchase a wide brim hat or an umbrella for use when you are out in the sun.

Wear high UVA sunscreen, SPF 30 or higher. PABA is a chemical found in sunscreen which can actually aggravate sun poisoning so it is best to purchase a sunscreen which does not have PABA.

Consuming the following foods on a regular basis may help to prevent sun poisoning.

• Carrots or other foods which are rich in Beta Carotene
• Fish, Flax Seed and other Omega-3 fatty acid foods.
• Green tea and other antioxidant rich foods.
• Vitamins B3, C, D, and E

Avoid chemicals which can aggravate this disorder. The following chemicals are known or suspected to contribute to sun poisoning.

• Hexachlorophene
• Lemon oil
• NSAIDs.
• Pellagra
• Photo-active dyes
• Ruta graveolins
• Salicylanilide
• Tetracycline antibiotics

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What is Blue Waffles disease?


Nowadays the news of this disease is again spreading on internet. Most of the people are searching and uploading its pictures to put scary visions in the mind of the people whom are ready about it or want to know about it. They want to fright those people whom want to know about this disease. Despite the fact that it is right that certain particular connected with blue waffle are perplexing and also some of the people who are discuss that there is no disease like Blue Waffle. The precise origin of classification is motionless unidentified other than the form of irritation of vaginal partition plus its hole is expressed as ‘blue waffle’ through a number of populace. Several of you might have recognized that the expression ‘waffle’ is a jargon name for explaining vagina. The infection of Blue Waffles is surely evocative of the symptoms of vaginal contamination in women. The woman who is contaminated through the disease will knowledge prickly feelings in the vaginal hole and nearby the expectation of converting this infection to men only in one case if the male try to use her vaginal hole during her sexual period. If you want to take sexual period with your partner must be keep away entirely at what time when the women have vaginal contamination or symptoms connected by this condition.

Symptoms

You can feel this infection by itching plus irritation inside as well as in the region of vagina. When the woman is aware of itching sensation connected with soreness in her vagina. Occasionally common vaginal emancipation is as well seen in women contaminated by blue waffles disease. Vagina possibly will change in color as well as turn out to be reddish due to irritation and it’s also possible that in some women have light bluish color. The women will also feel bad smelling in the vagina and occasionally the whitish emancipation possibly will transform its color.
These symptoms are only being intelligence by the infected women only those women can feel these symptoms that is infected by blue Waffle disease. The edge or hole of the vagina will puff up owing to irritation and there would be harsh itching feeling in the region of the vaginal part. If you knowledge whichever of the exceeding symptoms you must and quickly discuss with your doctor in addition to as well keep away from having sex among your partner.

Causes

Destabilized resistant system may possibly provide get higher in the direction of blue waffles disease. At what time the resistance is compromised the body gets easily contaminated through injurious microorganisms and germ. You will not be in a situation to brawl back aligned with microorganisms if there is no sufficient resistance in the system.
The lake of cleanliness is as well a reason intended for this trouble. Using low excellence pads during menstrual series and not cleaning the vagina appropriately subsequent to having sex can also cause of vaginal contamination.
Similar to new sexually converted diseases this condition can as well be converted quickly at what time the man is doing contact with contaminated woman.
Not careful sexual category and not using appropriate shield in the period of sexual contact be capable of blue waffles disease.

Treatment


If a woman senses the above symptoms in her vagina or the outside of her vagina so she must quickly contact with her doctor. It is the most beneficial for the woman to treat the disease at near the beginning stages before the disease is spread and become powerful. The doctor will describe appropriate pals and medication to control the contamination. Chase the doctor’s recommendation and it is powerfully suggested that you will not do near sexual intercourse until the symptoms hide completely.
The treatment of the condition will finish it within one week completely. In case of harsh irritation the doctor can recommend fine particles or salve to put on vaginal part which is contaminated. Those women who are doing sexual intercourse with strange people daily they are more expected to become infected by this disease.
It is necessary for the men to be dressed in condom during their sexual intercourse for their own protection against this disease.

Source:
Dr. Santa – santamartharescue.org
Blue waffles infection details – AFL

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Strep Throat Rash Remedies

Strep Throat belonging to a group of 46 species of bacteria, some of which are completely safe for humans, even part of the human flora. Other types of streptococci are very dangerous to humans and cause infections and diseases that are treated very hard. Strep throat is one of the most dangerous species, which are actually called bacterial infections.

More Strep throat images

There are several methods for home treatment of strep throat. Not many, however, how quickly treatment. You should know that streptococci differs from the normal sore throat and is not caused by cold or flu. With streptococcal disease is extremely contagious and is transmitted through droplet route. Firstly, if infected should take care not to transmit the disease to another family member or people from your environment. The easiest method to do this is to put a mask on his face when go out or socialize with anyone.

As previously mentioned, infection with strep throat is a bacterial infection, so you’ll need to take some foods that have anti-bacterial action. Foods such as garlic, lemon, chili, onion and chilies are rich in anti-bacterial substances. Use one or two in combination with vinegar as you mix them in a cup. Then dip cotton in open and smear it with your tonsils. It feels uncomfortable, but this will disinfect your tonsils. Drink lemon juice or lemonade (but not the store), aerated also helps fight against bacteria.

Foods should not accept when we are sick and have strep throat. Some use ice cream for home treatment, but this is a big mistake. Ice cream really does not help this type of infection. Hot tea is also not recommended, warm water provides for the accelerated development of bacteria in your throat. You can drink tea, but it is recommended that it be cooled to room temperature. Honey helps sore throat and deposits, but not streptococci.

If the above methods do not help you on your home treatment, you should consult with your personal physician. After making a medical examination will tell you exactly what is needed to cope with infection. It is important to know that your immune system fights infection and you can and help as you add vitamins to food. This way your immune system will be much more resistant to bacterial infections and if you can heal with natural resources in the future will be much more difficult to catch again.

Reference:
1. www.actforlibraries.org
2. www.healthguidedaily.com

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Ingrown Hairs – Get More Details!

There is always a need for you to about the ingrown hairs. Well, the hairs can occur for just anyone. However, these hairs are mostly seen with the people having curly hair pattern and due to this reason sometime the hairs on their body use to develop side wise. This can cause ingrown hairs. Well, the ingrown hairs in pubic area can also come into existence due to several other reasons. If you are not using right kind of lubrication like gel or soap before you shave, then also these ingrown hairs can come up. Under this situation, the facial hair goes through a forcefully cutting procedure and this can even trigger the chances for someone to acquire ingrown hairs. Apart from shaving, waxing and wearing tight clothes can do the same sometime and can lead the way for ingrown hairs. As far as the appearance of ingrown hairs is concerned, they can appear at just any body part. If you want to get rid of them, then you can always use the tweezers or the surgical rotating device to take it off. Ingrown hairs can generate reddish mark and that often appears as the pimple. It can appear on the facial skin or at any other body parts. If you really want to avoid ingrown hairs, then you should allow the natural growth of body and facial hairs. This will help you to get good result. You can also get more clarification related to this issue online. Having knowledge about ingrown hairs can help to prevent them.

Ingrown Hair on Pubic area

What are the Alpha Hydroxy Acids or how they’re very effective in the ingrown hair treatment?

The Alpha Hydroxy Acids are the acids that are used popularly in the skincare for helping to remove the dead cells from surface layer of skin. Some of the Alpha Hydroxy Acids also are known as the ‘fruit acids’ since they come from the fruit. AHA’s are studied in many clinical studies as well as are proven very effective for the treatment of the fine wrinkles & rejuvenating skin. Most common AHA will be glycolic acid. The cosmetic products like Skin Doctors Ingrow you can use glycolic acid – alpha hydroxy acid – for removing the ingrown hair. The glycolic acid helps for mildly exfoliating as well as taking away the dead skin. It helps to release trapped ingrown hair of follicle. The ingrown hairs are generally minor irritants, however they are very painful or unsightly. What is more, if they’re left any untreated ingrown hairs will get infected. Unluckily, almost everyone can get one at a little time. Whereas ingrown hair commonly comes in the areas where skin is been shaved, this will appear anywhere. So, anything that causes hair to get broken off short using sharp tip will cause the ingrown hair. And shaving is leading cause, and followed by the tight clothing. Suppose you shave often, you might need to deal it with the ingrown hairs very frequently.

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Natural cure for bacteria vaginosis

Welcome! I guess you’re searching for the best home remedies for thrush or commonly referred to as Bacterial Vaginosis ?

Do not be alarmed it is a common occurrence for most women today.

In this article you’ll discover the most effective treatment to permanently eradicate those nasty odors that includes, home remedies for thrush, home remedies for vaginal thrush, homeopathic remedies for thrush and natural cure for bacteria Vaginosis.

Before letting you on the best home or homeopathic remedy for vaginal thrush in which about 75% of women suffer from these days, can I just suggest that if you’re serious about permanently curing your vaginal odor then by all means follow these important steps below:

So, let’s begin shall we?…

What is vaginal thrush all about?

Thrush is a vaginal yeast infection. It’s also known as candida vulvovaginal candidiasis or vaginal candidosis which normally affects women in their twenties to their forties and even fifties and those who are pregnant as well.

According to research figures, over 75% of women get infected with vaginal thrush at some point in our lives with most women suffering from recurring but severe infections. Normally, these infections rampantly causes itching, other irritations and swelling of the vagina and vulva area which can be quiet disturbing.

Treating vaginal thrush is not as complicated as most women anticipate it to be though, however, vagina thrush infections can be very unpleasant, uncomfortable and most annoyingly embarrassing before or during sexual intercourse with one’s partner, period cycles, a simple doctor’s examinations like smear tests thereby leading to low confidence and also leading to very low self esteem.

We all have fungus in our bodies. Particularly, candida (yeast) which naturally occurs in various parts of our bodies like in our mouths, vagina, digestive systems and other parts of our bodies occur due to over growth- yeast growth is normally controlled by the friendly bacteria in our body.

When the balance of these friendly bacteria is offset and these yeast cells are allowed to overproduce candidiasis (yeast infections) occurs.

Infections are more peculiar amongst adults with debilitating general ill health and those with suppressed immune system possibly by the nature of their illness or diseases e.g. treatment like chemotherapy.

What actually causes vaginal thrush?

The most common cause of vaginal irritation is yeast infection known as the vulvovaginal candidiasis.

This infection (yeast) is the common cause of between 82-95% cases of vulvovaginal candidiasis while the remaining percentage tend to be Candida glabrata.

In most times, a major factor for infections is not known as several combining factors contribute towards the onset of vaginal yeast infections.

These includes..

  • Sexual activity- Although vaginal thrush is not seen as a sexually transmitted disease, sexual intercourse and other forms of sexual activity can transfer candida organisms. Some men whose partners have vulvovaginal candidiasis develop symptomatic inflammation of the skin on their penis.
  • Women with weakened immune system due to immunosuppressive drugs, HIV or chemotherapy are more prone to vaginal yeast infections that causes unpleasant odours from the vagina. It’s been discovered that Using vaginal sponges and other intrauterine devices make users more susceptible to vaginal yeast infections. Although some studies purport that wearing tight clothing can also provoke an infection but this theory hasn’t been proven yet.
  • Another major cause of vaginal thrush has been affiliated to antibiotics. You see, antibiotics means “against life”, so it kills off living organisms including bacteria. Especially, friendly bacteria as well as infectious strains. This act end up causing imbalance in the yeast environment causing vulvovaginal candidiasis in most women.
  • It’s also been known that diabetic sufferers are more susceptible to yeast infections most especially when it’s poorly controlled.
  • Changes in hormone levels have been attributed to vaginal candidiasis. Women who have not menstruated or post menopausal women tend to be less susceptible. In most women, it is frequently triggered by hormonal changes that take effect within the week just before our periods, and during pregnancy as well.
  • Doses of oral contraceptive pills have also been affiliated with vulvovaginal candidiasis whilst there has been no direct link with minimum dosage thus far.

 

Typical vaginal symptoms to look out for!

In some instances, there might be no symptoms at all. whilst on most occasions a typical infection will unvail some or all of the symptoms explained below…

  • Infected persons tend to have pains during sexual intercourse also known as dyspareunia
  • There is persistent irritation in the vulva or vagina region which could become unbearable most times.
  • Infected persons will also experience burning and unpleasant sensations when passing urine.
  • Itching of the vulva is also peculiar with vaginal thrush
  • There is also thick white curd like discharge from the vagina as well

At what point of vaginal thrush infection do i need to see a doctor?

If you experience symptoms listed above or other symptoms and you think you might have Vaginal Yeast Infection, it’s paramount that you ask your doctor for confirmation as some symptoms affiliated with thrush could relate to other conditions including sexually transmitted diseases like gardnerella, trichomonas and even chlamydia.

Although a visit to your doctor could be embarrassing, your doctor could also confirm the possibility that the irritation could be caused by a more severe infection like cancer of the vagina or cervix or perhaps presence of a foreign body.

On the other hand, if you’re suffering from recurrent bouts of vaginal thrush and are certain of the diagnosis, there are many quality and cost effective remedies or treatments available that you can obtain. As listed below…

Source:
How to cure BV – www.actforlibraries.org/bacterial-vaginosis/

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Tonsil Stones – Find Your Natural Treatment


There are many tonsil stone treatments that don’t actually work. Many people just give up finding a treatment and will turn to have their tonsil stones removed. However having a tonsillectomy will only stop the stones forming on your tonsils, it does not prevent you from coughing up or swallowing the sticky balls in the future.

There are many people who have got rid of such annoy stones and still complain about these whitish yellowish chunks that still appear at the back of your throat.

To produce your own treatment is easy – simply gargle with salt and water. This solution will help keep the mouth clean preventing bacteria growth.

Find Your Natural Treatment

Another tonsilloliths treatment is to use a curved syringe to squirt out the stone. This needs to be a curved tip syringe, using an ordinary syringe does not help. Fill up your syringe with salted water, then point the syringe inside the tonsil crypt where the white patch is located – then squirt!

If you don’t have a curved tip syringe, some people will use a water jet irrigation. This is an electronic dental cleaning device. Try to put the pressure at the lowest and clean out the area with the tonsil stones.

Although the methods that I have discussed will certainly dislodge the tonsil stones, the secret to getting rid of them permanently lies in the prevention. Only by attacking the root cause of these white stinky balls, this is how you can permanently prevent them from returning, this is the true form of remedy and treatment.

Antibiotics – Various medicines can be applied to encounter the tonsil stone. Whilst they may be helpful for some folks, these folks can’t proper the elementary problem which is inflicting tonsilloliths. These folks are solely a quick time period resolution as the illness is likely to reoccur continuously.

The trouble of tonsil stone reoccurs even after also immediately after repeated removing of tonsilloliths or extended mindset operative eliminating of the tonsils should be cautiously believed of earlier than going ahead.

Tenacious infections and tonsilloliths are factors to clear away the tonsils. A minimally extreme approach regarded as as cryptolysis can be made for these stones somewhat in contrast to tonsillectomy. A tonsillectomy contains the elimination of the contaminated tonsils from the throat.

Gargling non-alcohol and non-sugar based mostly mouthwash is great way to solve the problem purely and painlessly. If in claim you have bought a very small calcium deposits as a exterior of the tonsils, gargling should take the greatest care of it earlier than they’ve the luck to grow.

Gargling with mild saline drinking water additionally aids to lessen the soreness and discomfort related to tonsil stones. Gargling is efficient method which is able to present assist to to eradicate tonsil jewel.

If you locate yourself making an try normal tonsil gemstone cures you should consider regarding excellent verbal hygiene. Could you seriously want to do aside with tonsil stone manually, you have to encounter cleanliness. You will need to clean the tooth and tongue regularly.

Sneezing, Coughing and flexing the throat are one other tonsil jewel remedies. You quite possibly can even use your finger and scratch these minute globs out. You do use toothbrush, Q-tip, tongue, toothpick, and so forth. Having said that, which you want to use it is dependent upon the coziness level.

Try pressing a finger or cotton swab in opposition to the underside of the tonsil and pushing upward to take away the stone. Doing so act is a simple remedy one can administer it by oneself and which can dislodge moment tonsilloliths effectively.

One other natural therapy to regulate tonsilloliths is to consume an abundance of water all in the day that hydrates the throat and stops their formation.

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Sport Foot Blisters Can be Excruciating

Foot blisters are balloon-like structures filled with fluid or liquid near the surface of the skin of feet. These are caused by heat, sweat or friction. Usually, blisters on feet become more painful when they burst as a layer of tender skin is exposed. As a sportsman, you will face a lot of heat in your feet as every sport requires using feet or running.

Due to this friction, heat is produced, and that is followed by sweat. Working out might dampen your feet and cause your skin to become susceptible to foot blisters. In case you didn’t know, a foot blister may have severe effects if it is not taken care of on time.

Sportsmen mostly get blisters on the heels or soles of the feet. This is because these body parts are rubbed against shoes, socks or other sports equipment while they practice. The question, in this case, is what should sportsmen do to minimize friction on their skin? The answer is simple…

Prevention is better than cure. Don’t wait for the blisters to pop out on your feet. Rather, take precautionary steps and stop them from happening in the first place. The only way to prevent blisters on feet is to wear cushioned, well fitting socks and then add well fitted shoes to go along with them.

Most of us may end up at a discount store to stack our wardrobe with a variety of shoes without spending much money. This should not be practiced by a sportsman. It is best to purchase your sports shoes from a well known shoe store where the staff is knowledgeable about how perfect a sports shoe should fit your feet.

Using a good sports tape on your feet may be another preventive measure for foot blisters. These tapes are similar to common hand and wrist tapes, but the only difference is that you may have to purchase a shoe that is one size larger. Be sure that the tape is thoroughly wrapped around the areas which are most likely to rub your skin.

However, even after these precautionary measures, you will not be completely safe from blisters on feet, and might end up having a single or a cluster of blisters. If you are not willing to interrupt your sport or give longer gaps, you need to give some rest to your feet.  Take a break, wash your feet thoroughly, and then let them dry and cool off from the heat that you ignited by playing. You may follow this with a band aid or a special blister bandage.

Most blisters last about three to seven days. Sometimes these are large and painful, and may require professional help. Avoid playing completely if your blisters are infected. It’s a smarter move to miss on few days of activity or some practice matches to win the final tournament.

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Lochia Postpartum Bleeding

An Overview of Lochia Postpartum Bleeding


Women who give birth are prepared for the bleeding that follows.  It is a normal, natural part of the birthing process and continues for a period of a few days up to a few weeks.  And even after that, lighter bleeding is not uncommon for up to a month.  This is postpartum bleeding, the discharge of blood and tissue from a woman’s vagina, also known in medical terminology as lochia.  And since the normal blood volume in a woman’s body can grow by up to fifty percent during pregnancy, a small amount of bloodloss after the birth will not be harmful.  But what causes lochia?  Why does bleeding occur postpartum?

After a woman has given birth, her body naturally expels the placenta, which was attached to the walls of her uterus during the baby’s development.  The tissue underneath the placental implantation site heals and pushes the placenta away causing the placenta to come away as part of the lochia.  This allows a woman to have any number of future pregnancies, since the process does not create a scarring and leaves the uterus ready for another placenta to attach when or if the woman becomes pregnant again.  However, it also leaves open blood vessels that bleed into the uterus.  Tearing of the vagina, or an episiotomy, will also add to the bleeding until it is stitched closed.

The uterus then undergoes a process called involution, which is the process of the uterus shrinking.  This contracting helps close off many of the blood vessels that would otherwise continue to bleed.  Involution normally occurs very quickly.  But if this process does not go as it should, heavy bleeding may continue, or irregular bleeding may be experienced.  Abnormal involution can be caused by an infection, or when a piece of the placenta remains unexpelled.  The bleeding will most likely expel any remaining chunks of the placenta on its own and the situation will resolve itself that way.  However if it does not the doctor may elect to do a “dilate and clean” procedure, or D&C, to correct the problem.

Bleeding will be heavy and bright red for the first few days after childbirth and become less after that.  Although there may be spotting for the next few weeks after that, there should not be enough blood left in any discharge to notice by the end of the six week long post-partum time period.  Toward the end of this time, the discharge will be white or light yellow, made up primarily of white blood cells.  The process of involution can be helped along by massage techniques or by taking synthetic oxytocin.  Oxytocin is a hormone that encourages the uterus to shrink after pregnancy.  Breastfeeding releases natural oxytocin in the woman’s body which also aids involution.

During lochia any bleeding that is heavier than a normal menstrual period’s should be brought to the attention of a doctor.  This includes the passing of any large clots of blood.  Continued bleeding of this type can indicate a problem or an infection.  Tenderness associated with bleeding is not normal, and also may indicate a problem.  Bloody discharge that has an odor is likewise abnormal.  Any of these symptoms should be discussed with a doctor during the scheduled follow-up visit, if not sooner.

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Getting Rid of that Double Chin – Ways to Do It


(source from healthguidances.com)

Has anybody ever called you chubby cheeks or round face? If so, then you for sure may have felt hurt by such monikers; hence, it maybe high time for you to consider a transformation. But then again, how do you go about eliminating that horrible double chin? Well, here are some suggestions…

Exercise the Muscles of Your Face
There are not that many exercises which you can perform in order to eliminate unwanted fats from your face; however, there are indeed some that you should consider taking advantage of. Smile and laugh, as well as stretch the muscles and the skin of your face. You will be able to obtain some facial muscular tone by performing such stretching facial workouts. This is one of the surefire ways on how to get rid of a double chin.

Look for the Apt Weight Loss Program that Suits You
Chances are actually high that if you are plagued by excess fats along your facial region, you have excess fats along the other regions of your body as well. The best possible way in order for you to beat this is for you to look for the apt weight program which suits you. This needs not to entail being consistently hungry and/or depriving yourself of the foods that you love the most. It only means you should employ a healthy and smart approach when it comes to eating.

The best and healthiest approach in terms of eating is for you to consume meals with smaller portions a couple of hours apart, as well as to make all of those meals properly balanced. You should be well able and willing to trade in all the junk and unhealthy food items for much healthier options. By consuming the correct foods you can eliminate your ghastly double chin easily. Fresh vegetables, citric fruits, chicken and fish are some excellent alternatives. You can find great food substitutes also which tastes practically the same as with what you may usually eat; however, have fewer empty calories, chemicals, unhealthy fats and additives.

Drink Plenty of Water
Water is critical for an effective fat loss, irregardless if it is fats along your facial region or anywhere in your body. Firstly, water flushes out harmful toxins from your body. It also ensures certain body functions are working optimally, which means you will burn fats and build muscle rather easily. Another good thing concerning water is it actually keeps you generally healthy. Suffering from dehydration can result to lethargy, tiredness and dizziness. Getting dehydrated can also cause headaches as well as fainting spells.

Which is bad news, especially for those individuals wanting to shed their terrible-looking double chin since your body will be unable to properly burn fat if it is not feeling well. That is not the only problem though, your strength of mind will also be down and with this you are more inclined to consume unhealthy food items and neglect to exercise.

So, these are the simple ways in order to eliminate double chin. But, you can also resort to other methods, if what you want is a quick fix. A different hairstyle or makeup, for instance, can cause a significant effect on your look. However, for a permanent result, you should deeply consider following the above mentioned methods.

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victoria-sponge-cake

The Art and Science of the Perfect Victoria Sponge


A Victoria Sponge is a British classic loved by young and old. Many a competent cook began his or her learning by helping mother or grandmother bake a golden, high-rise cake, just oozing with home made jam, for tea. Like all baking, there is some serious science behind the deliciousness, so this article first offers a simple-to-follow recipe, and then goes on to look at the reasons why it works.

The Recipe

Ingredients

225g (8oz) unsalted butter or margarine

225g (8oz) castor sugar4 large eggs

225g (8oz) self-raising flour

1 tsp baking powder

2 tblsp of milk or water to add if necessary

For the filling:

425ml (3/4 pint) whipped cream (optional) strawberry jam

You will also need: 2 x 20cm (8 inch) sandwich tins

Method

1  Pre-heat the oven to 180 degrees C/360 degrees F/Gas mark 4.

2  Prepare two 20cm (8inch) sandwich tins by greasing them thoroughly and lining the base with non stick parchment. All the ingredients should be at room temperature.

3  Beat the butter in a mixing bowl until it is soft and pale.Add the sugar and continue beating. It will soon become light and fluffy.

4  Sift the flour and baking powder together.

5  Break the eggs into a separate bowl and beat them lightly.

6  Add the eggs a spoonful at a time to the batter mix, beating in a tablespoonful of the flour to every two or three spoonfuls of egg.Using a large metal spoon, fold in the sieved flour to the egg and butter mixture.

7  The mix is ready if it falls gently off the spoon.  If not, add a tablespoonful of water to loosen it very slightly.

8  Divide the mixture equally between the two prepared tins.

9  Tap the tins down gently to expel any large air pockets and level the cakes.

10 Place into the pre-heated oven for 25-30 minutes.

11 When ready, a cocktail stick or bamboo skewer inserted into the middle of the cake will come out clean, and the top will be gently browned. Remove from the oven and leave to cool in the tins for 5-10 minutes, then turn out to cool on a wire rack and remove the baking parchment.

12 When completely cool, prepare the filling with the strawberry jam and cream if using and sandwich the two sponges together.

13 Dust the cake with icing or caster sugar.

TV Chef Jamie Oliver has a step-by-step photo guide to producing a Victoria Sponge here

The Science

The Ingredients

The difference between self-raising and plain flour, is the amount of gluten it contains.  Gluten is the stretchy stuff which is developed by kneading when making bread.  We don’t want that here, because it will make our sponge tough, so always use sieved self-raising flour for sponges, and plain for breads.

Butter needs to be softened before using, but soft margarine will work straight from the fridge.  Margarine gives a finer texture, and butter a better flavour, so you can use half and half if you like.

The Method

The reason for beating the sugar and butter together is to incorporate as much air into the mixture as possible.  The mix becomes quite light and fluffy from all the little trapped air bubbles.  We continue to beat the mixture after adding the eggs to trap even more air. But once the flour is introduced we need to treat the mixture gently, because we do not want to activate the gluten.  At this stage we simply fold in the flour gently with the edge of a metal spoon.

The reason for adding the spoonful of flour with the eggs, is to prevent the mixture from separating.  This happens when the balance between the liquid and the solids breaks down, and it causes air to be lost, so a heavier cake.

The rest of the flour is sieved into the bowl and folded gently in with a metal spoon to preserve as much as possible of the trapped air.

The Cooking Process

During the cooking process, there are three ways the cake is made to rise. The chemical raising agents in self-raising flour and baking powder combine to produce carbon dioxide, and the air particles expand, then moisture in the mix turns to steam and expands. The egg in the mixture begins to coagulate and form the structure of the cake by trapping the expanded gases.

Once all the proteins have set, and the outside has browned nicely, the cake can be tested with a cocktail stick or skewer.  When that returns clean from the centre of the cake, it is ready to be turned out.  The sponge will shrink slightly from the edges of the pan as it cools, and be easier to remove from the pan, thus reducing the need for handling the hot cake.

So now you can follow the simple recipe, and you know the science behind why it has to be done the way it is.  But one thing science can’t explain is why licking the uncooked batter from the mixing bowl is such a treat!

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